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Mortar and Concrete Analysis: Forensic Aspects & Chemical Tests

Mortar and Concrete Analysis ans sampling

While dealing with forensic evidence related to structural failure or to know the reason behind it, cement, mortar, and concrete analysis is performed. In Forensic Mortar and Concrete Analysis, chemical tests such as the percentage of cement in a mortar, EDTA titration test is done for mortar analysis, while for concrete analysis silica test, chlorine …

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Adulteration of Cement: Test, Chemical & Instrumental Analysis

adulteration of cement

In the forensic analysis of cement, adulteration of cement test is done to determine whether the cement sample have adulterants or not. And to identify the type of adulterant, the various preliminary and forensic defined tests are performed which helps in the determination of adulterant. Adulteration of cement can be defined as the addition of …

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Vacuum Metal Deposition: Principle, Types & Components

Vacuum Metal Deposition VMD fingerprint development

Vacuum metal deposition (VMD) is probably one of the most sensitive fingermark detection and development techniques that are used in developing forensic fingerprint.  VMD is also capable of developing bloody fingerprints (you can check our article on “DEVELOPMENT OF BLOODY FINGERPRINTS“) for nonporous surfaces as well as semi-porous surfaces like woods and some fabrics. This …

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Development of Bloody Fingerprints: Chemical Test and Techniques

Blood is one of the most common types of biological evidence that are encountered in violent crime scenes. And blood is one of the most commonly observed fingerprint contaminants and this fingerprint is called bloody fingerprints. Developing blood fingerprints may depend on the type of surfaces and also the types of environmental condition eg. rain. …

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FPLMN (SIM): A detailed Explanation | UPLMN, OPLMN, EPLMN, HPLMN, IPLMN, VPLMN

FPLMN-SIM-A-detailed-Explanation-UPLMN-OPLMN-EPLMN-HPLMN-IPLMN-VPLMN

What is FPLMN? FPLMN in telecom stands for Forbidden Public Land Mobile Network. It is an Elementary File under DF structure for GSM (DF_GSm). FPLMN helps to identify networks with which the device carrier does not have a valid agreement to access.  The PLMN will be termed to be as FPLMN when the network rejects the location …

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