Liverpool Palmprint Classification System: How to Calculate Values?

Liverpool Palmprint Classification System (LPCS) is one of the easy-to-understand palmprint classifications whose values are in alphabetic and numeric code arranged in special coding boxes. It was housed in Liverpool, England.

example of liverpool fingerpirnt classification system
Example of Liverpool Palmprint Classification System Coding box

[Table] Sub-Classification of LPCS and Palm Areas

3 main palmer areas used in Liverpool palmprint classification
Image of 3 main palm areas used in Liverpool palmprint classification.
Liverpool Palmprint DivisionPalm AreaCoding Values
PrimaryAll 3 pattern areaNumeric
SecondaryHypothenarAlphabetic
TertiaryThenarAlphabetic
QuaternaryInterdigitalAlphabetic & Numeric

How to Calculate Liverpool Palmprint Classification Values?

How to Calculate Liverpool Palmprint Classification Values

A. Primary Division

The primary division uses a set of values based on any type of pattern that appears in any of the three palm sections. In the case of more than one pattern in a palm area, even then, only a single value is given.

Read More: Western Australian Palmprint Classification System and Subdivisions

Table for Pattern Indication from Primary Values

However, if patterns appear in more than one palm section, then cumulative summed values in assigned all values are given in the following table.

PatternPrimary Value
No pattern in area1
Thenar only2
Interdigital only3
Hypothenar only4
Thenar and interdigital only5
Thenar and hypothenar only6
Interdigital and hypothenar only7
Patterns in all three areas9

B. Secondary Classification

Secondary palmprint classification has another extension called subsecondary classification. The values are governed by the pattern in the hypothenar part only and are assigned as the alphabetic code.

More than one Pattern in Hypothenar Area:

The classification box is separated by a diagonal line (bottom left to the upper right).

  • Left Upper Half: designated the pattern symbol of the pattern closest to the interdigital area.
  • Lower Right Half: designated for the pattern symbol of the pattern closest to the wrist.

Following are the alphabetic codes used in secondary classification:

Pattern TypeSymbols
Whorl A (circular)A
Whorl B (elliptical)B
Twinned loopTL
Lateral pocket loopLP
Central pocket loopCP
Accidental/compositeACC
Tented archT
Loop core inwardI
Loop core outwardO
Loop core downwardD
Loop core upwardU
Loop core nutantK
NondescriptN
Plain archN
No pattern
High carpal deltaH
Low carpal deltaL

Second Subsecondary Classification

It involves two subclassifications:

  • Single loop in the hypothenar: record the number of ridge characteristics in the core area.
  • Devoid pattern in hypothenar: record the type of delta.

Read More: Henry Fingerprint Classification System: Key, Major, Primary, Secondary, Subsecondary and Final

C. Tertiary Classification

The thenar section of the palm is used to obtain the value of this classification.

Like primary classification, if two patterns are in the thenar area, the box was separated by a diagonal line.

  • Left Upper Half: designated the pattern symbol of the pattern closest to the interdigital area.
  • Lower Right Half: designated for the pattern symbol of the pattern closest to the wrist.

D. Quaternary Classification

The quaternary classification is subdivided into three divisions:

  • Part 1
  • Part 2
  • Part 3

Part 1 of Quaternary Classification

  • Types of patterns in the interdigital area.
  • More than one pattern in the area, a diagonal box separated by three diagonal lines.
    • Upper left third: pattern closest to the index finger
    • Botton right third: pattern closest to the little finger

Part 2 of Quaternary Classification

  • Specific predetermined numerical values indicate the position of the pattern in relation to fingers. 
  • More than one pattern: combined the numeric values into a single value.
  • Pattern between the base of two Fingers: record the higher value.

Following is the table for the given set of values:

Position of PatternValue
Under index finger8
Under middle finger4
Under ring finger2
Under little finger1

Part 3 of Quaternary Classification

  • Record counts of tented arches or loops (inward core, outward core, and downward core loops) in the interdigital area.

Read More: 11 Reasons and Importance of Why Fingerprints Used for Identification in Forensic Science

References:

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