Western Australian Palmprint Classification System and Subdivisions

Western Australian Palmprint Classification (WAPC) is a classification system for palm areas based on the numeric values of primary division and alphanumeric values of secondary division. Like Henry’s classification values, the WAPC values are also arranged in fractions.

Example of Australian Palmprint Classification Value 

Here is an example of palmprint classification value by the Australian system proposed by Baird, in 1959.

Example of Australian Palmprint Classification Value 

Tripartite Division of Palm Print

Tripartite Division of Palm Print

For calculating the WAPC value, the palm area was first divided into three parts called as “Tripartite Division”.

Area 1: Thenar

The area stretched from half of the wrist area (separated by a lifeline) to the index finger.

Area 2: InterDigital

The area stretched from the ground of the index finger to the ring finger separated by a heart line.

Area 3: Hypothenar

Area left by the thenar and interdigital tripartite division of palm

How Australian Palmprint Classification System Works?

The Australian palmprint classification is the modified version of Henry’s classification system and uses the same values as in Henry’s classification. 

The value of Australian Palmprint Classification System is divided into two major classifications:

  1. Primary Classification
  2. Secondary Classification
    • First Division
    • Second Division (secondary subclassification)

1. Primary Palmprint Classification 

Like the Henry Primary classification system, in this classification, there are also sets of values for pattern types. However, the values are assigned when any type of pattern is seen on the interdigital palm area.

Note: In Henry’s primary classification, values are only allotted when prints are whorl but in the WAPC system, values are allotted when any pattern type is seen.

Finally, the resultant values are then added with 1 to come up final primary palmprint classification value.

Read More: Liverpool Palmprint Classification System: How to Calculate Values?

[Table] Assigned Values of Primary Division Based on Pattern in Tripartite Area

Pattern and Tripartite AreaSpecific Value
Interdigital #5 finger delta to ulnar edge1
Interdigital #4 finger delta to #3 finger delta2
Interdigital #3 finger delta to radial edge4
Thenar8
Hypothenar16
No pattern in Area0

Read More: 11 Reasons Why Fingerprints Used for Identification: Importance of Fingerprints in Forensic

2. Secondary Palmprint Classification System

The secondary classification is further subdivided into two subdivisions: (a) First Division and (b) Second Division.

A. First Division

  • The pattern types of the thenar and hypothenar areas are considered.
  • The values are expressed in fractions.
    • Numerator: Pattern type in Thenar area
    • Denominator: Pattern type in Hypothenar area

B. Second Division

  • It is sometimes called secondary sub-classification.
  • The pattern types in the thumb and index finger and the interdigital area are considered.
  • The values are expressed in fractions:
    • Numerator: Thumb to Index area
    • Denominator: Interdigital

Note: Subsecondary divisions sometimes have another subdivision involved in ridge counting and ridge tracing. Their values are expressed to the right of second-division values.

Patterns Type and Respective Symbol/Code for the Australian Palmprint Classification System 

PatternLocationSymbol
Arch Thenar
Thumb-index
Hypothenar
Interdigital 
A
None
A
a
Exceptional arch Thenar
Thumb-index
Hypothenar
Interdigital 
E
e
E
e
Joined arch All four AreaJ
Joined arch #1 Hypothenar only J1
Joined arch #2 Hypothenar only J2
Vertical arch #1 Hypothenar only V1
Tented arch Thenar
Thumb-index
Hypothenar
Interdigital 
T
t
T
t
Tented arch # 1 Hypothenar T1
Tented arch # 2 Hypothenar T2
Radial loop Thenar
Thumb-index
Hypothenar
Interdigital 
R
r
R
r
Radial loop #1 Hypothenar R1
Radial loop #2 Hypothenar R2
Radial loop #3 Hypothenar R3
Radial loop #4 Hypothenar R4
Ulnar loop All four areaU
Ulnar loop #1 Hypothenar U1
Ulnar loop #2 Hypothenar U2
Ulnar loop #3 Hypothenar U3
Ulnar loop #4 Hypothenar U4
Distal loopInterdigital L
WhorlThenar
Thumb-index
Hypothenar
Interdigital 
W
w
W
w
Central Pocket LoopThenar
Thumb-index
Hypothenar
Interdigital 
C
c
C
c
Double loopThenar
Thumb-index
Hypothenar
Interdigital 
D
d
D
d
AccidentalThenar
Thumb-index
Hypothenar
Interdigital 
X
x
X
x

References:

  • The Fingerprint Sourcebook By United States Department of Justice [Link]
  • Touchless Palmprint Recognition Systems By Angelo Genovese, Vincenzo Piuri, Fabio Scotti [Link]
  • A Modern Approach for Palmprint Recognition System [Link]
  • Advanced Biometric Technologies By Stan Z. Li.
  • Palm Print Recognition System: Need, Uses, and Working